TODAY IN OUR LAB: Acetobacter orientalis
Acetobacter orientalis is a species of bacteria that was first isolated from a canna flower, Canna hybrida. The name “orientalis” refers to the region where the strains were isolated.
This bacterium is a mesophilic species, meaning it grows best in moderate temperature conditions. It belongs to the genus Acetobacter, which is known for producing acid as a result of metabolic processes. Acetobacter is an obligatory aerobic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and is characterized by the ability to convert ethanol to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen.
The type strain of this species is 21F-2; CIP 107379; DSM 15550; IFO 16606; JCM 11195; NBRC 16606; NRIC 481. The risk group for this bacterium is 1, indicating it’s not known to cause disease in healthy adult humans.
Acetobacter orientalis has several applications, particularly in the food and biotechnology industries:
Strains of the genus Acetobacter, including A. orientalis, are used for vinegar fermentation due to their ability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid and their high resistance to the resulting acetic acid.
Lactobionic Acid Production:
A. orientalis has been found to be involved in the production of lactobionic acid in Caucasian yogurt, also known as “Caspian Sea yogurt”, in Japan. Lactobionic acid is used in various applications, including as a component of the preservative solution used during organ transplantation and as an ingredient in the antibiotic erythromycin lactobionate.
A strain of A. orientalis, XJC-C, has been found to have high-efficiency cellulase and ligninase activity, enabling it to degrade cellulose and lignin. This makes it useful for degrading various industrial and agricultural fertilizers containing cellulose and lignin, and for recycling byproducts and microbial fertilizers. This has practical value for waste treatment and high-efficiency utilization of microbial resources.